Articles | Volume 14, issue 1
Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 14, 45–52, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/dwes-14-45-2021
Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 14, 45–52, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/dwes-14-45-2021

Research article 08 Feb 2021

Research article | 08 Feb 2021

Evaluation of thin film composite forward osmosis membranes: effect of polyamide preparation conditions

Aya Mohammed Kadhom et al.

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Cited articles

Al-Furaiji, M. H. O., Arena, J. T., Chowdhury, M., Benes, N., Nijmeijer, A., and McCutcheon, J. R.: Use of forward osmosis in treatment of hyper-saline water, Desalin. Water Treat., 133, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2018.22851, 2018. 
Al-Furaiji, M., Benes, N., Nijmeijer, A., and McCutcheon, J. R.: Use of a Forward Osmosis–Membrane Distillation Integrated Process in the Treatment of High-Salinity Oily Wastewater, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 58, 956–962, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.8b04875, 2019. 
Al-Furaiji, M., Kadhom, M., Kalash, K., Waisi, B., and Albayati, N.: Preparation of thin-film composite membranes supported with electrospun nanofibers for desalination by forward osmosis, Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 13, 51–57, https://doi.org/10.5194/dwes-13-51-2020, 2020. 
Cath, T. Y., Childress, A. E., and Elimelech, M.: Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments, J. Memb. Sci., 281, 70–87, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2006.05.048, 2006. 
Cath, T. Y., Elimelech, M., McCutcheon, J. R., McGinnis, R. L., Achilli, A., Anastasio, D., Brady, A. R., Childress, A. E., Farr, I. V., Hancock, N. T., Lampi, J., Nghiem, L. D., Xie, M., and Yip, N. Y.: Standard Methodology for Evaluating Membrane Performance in Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes, Desalination, 312, 31–38, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2012.07.005, 2013. 
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Short summary
Thin film composite forward osmosis membranes were prepared on a polysulfone substrate (17 wt %) as a support layer, via an interfacial polymerization reaction, to form a polyamide selective layer. The effect of the reaction times was investigated. The best results were found to be at 5 min for m-phenylenediamine and 1 min for trimesoyl chloride reaction times, respectively. These results gave the best performance of forward osmosis membranes in terms of water flux and salt rejection.