Articles | Volume 11, issue 2
Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 11, 87–100, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/dwes-11-87-2018
Drink. Water Eng. Sci., 11, 87–100, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/dwes-11-87-2018

Research article 30 Jul 2018

Research article | 30 Jul 2018

Comprehensive analysis of the start-up period of a full-scale drinking water biofilter provides guidance for optimization

Loren Ramsay et al.

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Short summary
Many waterworks utilize sand filters that rely on microorganisms for water treatment. When new, these biofilters require several months for the growth of microorganisms before they become functional. This study is the most thorough documentation of this start-up process to date. Results show that the onset of removal of individual substances proceeds in a well-defined order and that the different filter depths have different functions, suggesting which activities may shorten the start-up period.