Articles | Volume 10, issue 2
Research article
16 Nov 2017
Research article |  | 16 Nov 2017

Use of an external organic carbon source in the removal of nitrates in bio-sand filters (BSFs)

Crispen Mutsvangwa and Evans Matope

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Cited articles

Almasiri, M. N. and Kaluarachchi, J. J.: Modelling nitrate contamination of groundwater in agricultural watersheds, J. Hydrol., 343, 211–229, 2007.
Aslan, S. and Cakici, H.: Biological denitrification of drinking water in slow sand filter, J. Hazard. Mater., 148, 253–258, 2007.
Baumgartner, J., Murcott, S., and Ezzati, M.: Reconsidering appropriate technology: The effects of operating conditions on the bacterial removal performance of two household drinking water filter systems, J. Environ. Res. Lett., 2, 1–6, 2007.
Callado, N. H.: Anaerobic-aerobic SBR system treating synthetic substrate simulating domestic sewage, PhD Thesis, University of Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, São Paulo, 2001.
CAWST: Biosand Filter: Manual for Design, Construction, Installation and Maintenance; Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, Calgary, Canada, available at: 20Manual_Version_1 (last access: 10 July 2016), 2009.
Short summary
Low-income countries lack the capacity to remove chemical contaminants like nitrates. Hence, an economical water filtration technology was explored, which is bio-sand filtration. In order to enhance the removal of nitrates through denitrification, a modified bio-sand filter with ethanol as an external carbon source at C / N ratios of 1.1 and 1.8 was investigated. The results of the research showed a removal rate of 53 % at a C / N ratio of 1.8.