Articles | Volume 10, issue 2
https://doi.org/10.5194/dwes-10-119-2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/dwes-10-119-2017
Research article
 | 
16 Nov 2017
Research article |  | 16 Nov 2017

Use of an external organic carbon source in the removal of nitrates in bio-sand filters (BSFs)

Crispen Mutsvangwa and Evans Matope

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Short summary
Low-income countries lack the capacity to remove chemical contaminants like nitrates. Hence, an economical water filtration technology was explored, which is bio-sand filtration. In order to enhance the removal of nitrates through denitrification, a modified bio-sand filter with ethanol as an external carbon source at C / N ratios of 1.1 and 1.8 was investigated. The results of the research showed a removal rate of 53 % at a C / N ratio of 1.8.