Nanofiltration for water and wastewater treatment – a mini review
- 1School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), P.O. Box 129, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia
- 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, Korea
Abstract. The application of membrane technology in water and wastewater treatment is increasing due to stringent water quality standards. Nanofiltration (NF) is one of the widely used membrane processes for water and wastewater treatment in addition to other applications such as desalination. NF has replaced reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in many applications due to lower energy consumption and higher flux rates. This paper briefly reviews the application of NF for water and wastewater treatment including fundamentals, mechanisms, fouling challenges and their controls.