NOM removal technologies – Norwegian experiences
Abstract. The paper gives an overview of the methods for removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in water, particularly humic substances (HS), with focus on the Norwegian experiences. It is demonstrated that humic substances may be removed by a variety of methods, such as; molecular sieving through nanofiltration membranes, coagulation with subsequent floc separation (including granular media or membrane filtration), oxidation followed by biofiltration and sorption processes including chemisorption (ion exchange) and physical adsorption (activated carbon). All these processes are in use in Norway and the paper gives an overview of the operational experiences.