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Drinking Water Engineering and Science An interactive open-access journal
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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  29 Jul 2020

29 Jul 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal DWES.

Evaluation of Changes in Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Bottled Water Exposed to Sunlight in Bauchi, Nigeria

Rose E. Daffi1 and Fwangmun B. Wamyil2 Rose E. Daffi and Fwangmun B. Wamyil
  • 1Department of Civil Engineering, University of Jos, Jos, 930222, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Civil Engineering, Kampala International University, Ishaka, Uganda

Abstract. It is common for bottled water and other assorted drinks to be seen displayed outside stores and in the sun in most parts of Nigeria. The country is mostly hot year-round and over the course of the year temperatures can rise to as high as 40 °C around March–April in the study area. The leaching effect of chemicals from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water was investigated for five (5) commercially available bottled water brands. Temperature, pH, Antimony, Bisphenol A and Nitrate levels were measured on day zero, 14 and 28 for control samples and samples exposed to direct sunlight, using destructive sampling technique. The study found that pH for brands B and D were lower than the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations at day zero. The control sample for Brand A maintained pH within the guideline values for 0–28 days while all Brands exposed to sunlight for 14 and 28 days had lower values than specified. Antimony was not detected in brands A, B and E in the baseline measurement at day zero while brands C and D had low values; after 28 days all the control samples still had Antimony levels within the US EPA standard. Meanwhile all the samples exposed to sunlight exceeded US EPA standard levels at 14 and 28days except brand A which was within limit at 14 days with value of 4.59 µg/L. All control and exposed samples were below the European Union Drinking Water Directive (EU DWD) total daily intake (TDI) of Bisphenol A (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day). Values obtained for Nitrate showed that all control samples did not exceed the US EPA guideline level for Nitrates in drinking water for 0, 14 ad 28 days while three (3) of the samples, Brands C, D and E, exceeded the guideline level at 28 days. Expose of bottled water to sunlight was seen to impair the quality of the water for consumption. It is recommended that regulators and practitioners drive implementation of proper storage/retailing of bottled water products and improve legislation on manufacture of plastics for food contact products.

Rose E. Daffi and Fwangmun B. Wamyil

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Rose E. Daffi and Fwangmun B. Wamyil

Rose E. Daffi and Fwangmun B. Wamyil


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Latest update: 29 Oct 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
We investigated the effect of long exposure to sunlight (as is practised by retailers & peddlers in Bauchi state, Nigeria) of commercial plastic bottled drinking water. Level of physical/chemical parameters were measured for five (5) brands & found that levels of pH, Antimony, Nitrates & Bisphenol A changed significantly as the time of exposure increased. Thus, highlighting the importance of proper monitoring of storage & retailing of plastic bottle products to safeguard health of consumers.
We investigated the effect of long exposure to sunlight (as is practised by retailers & peddlers...